Keith and Brian Berns, creators of Green Cover Seed, a successful cover crop seed business in south-central Nebraska, evaluate a field with a mixture of different cover crop plant species.

What We Need Are Farms That Support Farmers, Consumers AND the Environment

, Kendall Science Fellow | March 3, 2017, 3:58 pm EDT
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: This post was co-authored with Marcia DeLonge and originally published in Ensia.

The past several years have been rough for many U.S. farmers and ranchers. Net farm incomes this year could fall to 50 percent of 2013 levels in a fourth consecutive year of income declines that is leading some producers to seek alternatives. At the same time, rural and urban Americans share growing concerns related to agriculture: worries that water pollution will be increasingly costly and harmful, that water supplies are at risk from extreme swings in rainfall, and that global warming due to fossil fuel burning threatens our food system and will necessitate changes in how we farm.

What if all of these challenges could find a common solution? It might just be that they can. In a commentary published this week in the scientific journal Elementa, we contend that agroecology offers a promising approach to solving food system problems while mitigating, water and energy concerns — and propose a way to overcome the obstacles to fully embracing it.

U.S. agriculture has trended for several decades — as a result of policy, economics and other drivers — toward systems that are more simplified over both space and time. This has had adverse consequences for food, energy and water.

Agroecology takes a different approach, applying ecological concepts to create and maintain diverse, resilient food systems. Promising research demonstrates that bringing diversity back to farms can begin to reverse the problems simplification has created. For example, scientists have found that strategically incorporating perennial plants (including food, energy or non-crop plants) into small areas of commodity crops can significantly reduce water pollution and soil loss. Studies also show that using multiple crops rather than a monoculture is associated with improvements in the amount of carbon (important to help soils hold onto more water and mitigate climate change) and nitrogen (critical for plant growth and soil function) in the soil.

If better farming systems exist, why don’t more producers use them, and why aren’t they more encouraged? Among the reasons:

  • Government policies and economics influence many producer decisions that contribute to landscape simplification. For example, biofuel incentives greatly expanded markets for ethanol, leading farmers to replace grasslands with endless acres of monoculture corn rather than leaving them native or planting more diverse crops.
  • Research has also found that the need to focus on immediate cash flow rather than long-term benefits just to stay afloat can make it difficult to adopt more resilient systems
  • Agroecology research is woefully underfunded. This means that up-to-date examples of innovative practices suited to specific regions are not sufficiently available for many farmers.
  • Change is hard and it can take support for producers to get started. It is critical to find peers and peer networks to learn from — and these are rare.
  • Benefits are narrowly defined. When farmers, policy-makers, and scientists focus primarily on simple measures of progress like crop yields, we lose track of the many other benefits of agroecology — including those related to water and energy.

In spite of these and other obstacles, innovators have begun to demonstrate that diversified land management can be good business, from a cover crop seed company in rural Nebraska, to a food hub supporting local diversified food production in western Iowa, to a consulting group helping farmers optimize land management and costs with a “precision conservation” approach. The dire need for economic opportunity in rural America was a major discussion point in the 2016 election, and these examples suggest how a more diverse and sustainable agriculture can help meet that need.

A shift in perspective that recognizes relationships among food, water, and energy systems and new metrics that value co-benefits to water and energy could go a long way toward further advancing agroecology. In fact, recently published research refutes the idea that we must solely focus on doubling crop production to meet future demand. These researchers believe the actual future yield increases needed are smaller and that we must explicitly define environmental goals to match the production demands that always seem to dominate the narrative around food.

Fortunately, we know that solutions do exist, and with agroecological approaches we can solve these multiple challenges at the same time. View Ensia homepage

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  • Vee

    I don’t know who could do it, but perhaps the way forward is to institute some demonstration farms of the right sort, so that other farmers could visit and see what can be done and talk to those who are doing it. A lot of farmers would not take advice from just anyone, but will listen to other farmers.

    • Andrea Basche

      Thanks for reading. I agree – as to many other scientists who do this research – that more examples and farmer to farmer learning would be beneficial. There are already many examples of farmer organizations (Practical Farmers of Iowa is one that I am very familiar with) who coordinate on-farm research, host field days, etc. to share knowledge. Many university extension services do similar important work as well!

      • Vee

        That is great to know. There must be hundreds and hundreds of little agriculture enterprises all over the country, from small local community gardens to larger county efforts and farmer’s support groups. . . I get to hear about some of them via the web. Let us fervently hope that they are not closed down by you know who.
        Drawing them all together under an umbrella group would provide opportunities for exchange of ideas and mutual support., Nowadays, with the web, this should prove relatively easy. You, or someone, might be inspired by http://www.the

        I assume you are familiar with Woods Hole Research Centre ?

  • StupidNet

    Screw the ranches. Meat eating is the most wasteful, destructive, environmentally hazardous method of growing food. Read “Mad Cowboy: Plain Truth from the Cattle Rancher Who Won’t Eat Meat” by Howard Lyman, especially the chapter, “Bovine Planet”. Most of America’s water problems would be solved, instantly. Farmers would also benefit from eliminating ranching, as would hundreds of millions of Americans who suffer from obesity and diabetes. Returning the Earth to natural, ecological balance is essential. Eliminating mono-crops and stopping subsidy’s would also go a long ways towards solving the farmers financial dilemma.